Connect 2 Netgear switches of different models via uplink does not work

One netgear switch of the company i work for was RMA’d and we got a replacement of the ” M5300″ series. i connected the switch so our backbone switch via SFP+ 10GBit uplink but the two switches did not want to communicate. it was like the cable was broken or sth, but the port was displayed as “connected” and “forwarding”, after some hours of trial and error i gave up and we contacted netgear support, they said the VLAN configuration must be wrong (but i was sure it wasnt) so they decided to look together via teamviwer and i told the support guy what i was expecting and what the results are. he saw the config UI of the new switch and said “seems right”. then i connected to the “old” switch to show hin the VLAN configuration and he saw the model number and the old web UI. he said we need to connect back to the other switch (the new one, he might have a solution…)

we disabled STP on the uplink port and tadaaaa, it works.

he told me that when connecting old models with newer ones this is a known issue.


so, to fix an uplink between two different models of netgear switches go to the following menu and disable “Port Mode” for the uplink port (in this case 49) on the newer switch:


How to get Remote Audio Microphone working with Windows Server 2019 Remote Desktop Services

long story short, there were a few things that helped me but the 2 main reasons it would not work (Remote Audio Microphone was present but it did not make any sounds).

On the Terminal Server as an admin:

Local Computer Policy (although this settings should be enabled by default if set to “Not specified”):

Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> Remote Desktop Services -> Remote Desktop Session Host -> Device and Resource Redirection:

Enable “Allow audio and video playback Redirection”
Enable “Allow audio recording redirection”

On the Terminal Server as the User:

Right Click “Sound” in the Taskbar (the Speaker Icon) -> Open Sound Settings -> Microphone Privacy Settings

Enable “Allow apps to access your microphone”

With this i got remote mic up and running.


a more complex proxy pac / wpad.dat example

some of my time in the last few days i spent on a more complex wpad.dat or proxy pac file, that would support my needs for a slightly more complex network structure than just a simple “use the proxy always, we only have 192.168.0.x”, but with multiple networks where not all networks should use the proxy and some internal networks should be accessed directly and some via proxy etc.

so i wrote the script below. it’s pretty straight forward:

  • proxyhost, proxyport: change the proxy host and port
    [note: ${asg_hostname} is a variable used by Sophos UTM, formerly known as astaro security gateway (asg) an is replaced with the hostname of the firewall/proxyserver]
  • directRegexPatterns: add / change the networks you want to be accessed directly (without proxy)
  • nets: put the networks here that should use the proxy

and thats it – throw it in your proxy server and fire it up!

good to know:

debugging in chrome is pretty easy, just add

alert("my log info");

to the proxy pac script and go to “chrome://net-internals/#proxy
there you see the proxy chrome is using right now and can “re-apply” the settings (e.g. if you use proxy autoconfiguration via DHCP Option 252 [not working in Firefox] or via DNS wpad.yourdomain.local [working with Firefox])

after you verified you’re using the correct proxy you can go to “events” tab and sort by ID descending and search for “PAC” and you’ll see something like this:

heres the gist of it. just download it and upload it to your firewall or other proxy server (maybe you have to rename it to wpad.dat)